Transcription, translation, and grammar exercises

These pages are regularly updated as I complete new exercises.

Each of these exercises is based on a recording, which I have separated into utterances, and these utterances can be played from each exercise, one by one, as many times as one wishes. Some of the exercises have drop-down lists, and students are to match the content of the drop-down list with the utterance heard. Students can see how well they matched the written words with the spoken words.

Other exercises ask the students to transcribe words by typing each symbol in the spaces provided (fill the gaps). A virtual keyboard is available to type in special symbols. Note that while symbols with combining diacritics (the glottalization marks, the stress marks, the syllabic markers) are listed in the virtual keyboard as unit characters, the modifying diacritic raised w [ʷ] needs to be typed separately following the symbol it is modifying. Students can get help by clicking on the hint square provided. They can see how well they have transcribed by clicking "check."

Other exercises are "drag and drop" and students are to arrange the words in the correct order.

The "fill the gaps" exercises accept alternate spellings as explained here. Most schwas can be omitted from transcriptions, thus both wikn (I saw it) and wíkən are correct transcriptions. Note, however that if a word has more than one vowel, then the stressed vowel needs a stress mark above it.

The treatment of syllabic resonants is this: the word ṇstils (one thinks) begins with a syllabic resonant. This is not the same as a laryngealized resonant and is marked with a subdot (while laryngealized resonants are marked with a raised comma above). The exercises will mark correct both ṇstils and nstils. Another example is ḷ k̓ʷinx (what time is it?) and the exercise will mark correct both ḷ k̓ʷinx and l k̓ʷinx. k̓ʷəl̕əncútṇ is one of several possible transcriptions: k̓ʷl̕ncutn (with no schwas written, without marked stress, and the final n without a subdot), k̓ʷəl̕ncútṇ, k̓ʷəl̕əncútn, k̓ʷl̕ncútən, k̓ʷ̕lncutṇ are all marked correct by the exercise.